This article is all about IP addresses and binary conversion of IP addresses. In this article, we discuss one of the most fundamental concepts of information technology, IP addresses! we all know that our all technical devices like computer, laptop, Smartphone, etc. are have some kind of addresses. These addresses are generally called an IP Address or MAC Address. we all know that there are two types of addresses are present for computers and smartphones one is logical address and another is the physical address.
In other words, the logical address is generally called an IP address and the physical address is called a MAC address. people also know these addresses by IP and MAC address they don’t know about the logical and physical address. So, in this post, we talk about types of addresses, use of addresses in our daily life.
1. Physical address (MAC address): – A media access control address (MAC address) of a computer is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications at the data link layer of a network segment. MAC address is used for IEEE 802 network technologies, including Ethernet and WiFi. logically it is used in the media access control in the OSI reference model. MAC addresses are most often assigned by the manufacturer of a network interface controller (NIC) and are stored in its hardware. It assigned by the manufacturer, a MAC address usually encodes the manufacturer’s registered identification number. Mac address also is known as Ethernet hardware address (EHA), hardware address and physical address. In other words, this is called a 48-bit address because it contains 6-octet in their address and every single octet contains 8 bits. This 48-bit address space contains potentially 248 or 281,474,976,710,656 possible MAC addresses. To check your computers MAC address open command prompt then type the getmac command in it and press enter.
2. Logical address (IP address): – An IP address (Internet Protocol address) is a numerical level which assigned to each device like a computer, printer, and smartphone, etc. participating in a computer network that uses the internet protocol for communication. An IP address is based on two principle functions 1. host or network interface identification and 2. location addressing. Its role has been characterized as follows: “A route indicates how to get there and A name indicates what we seek as well as An IP address indicates where it is. it means the IP address indicates the location of a user.
Generally, the IP address is of two types: – IPv6 and IPv4
Internet protocol version 4 (IPv4) contain 32-bits in its address, is still in use today. But we saw that the internet users will be increased day by day in this world and the available address decreases. In that case, the designer of Internet protocol also defined a new IP address as 128 bit and this system is known as Internet protocol version 6 (IPv6). To check the IP address of your computer simply open command prompt then type ipconfig command in it and press enter.
Ip addresses are usually written in human-readable notation, such as 10.0.0.0 (IPv4), and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 (IPv6)
An example of IPv4 in dotted-decimal notation, IP address = 172.16.254.1
An example of IPv6 in hexadecimal notation, MAC address = 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1
After it now we learn only about IPv4 because this version will be used in the present world and IPv6 is the reserve for future use so let’s start here learn about IPv4.
IP version for is contained 32 bit in its address. IPv4 has 4 octets in their IP address and each octet has 8 bits only. Now we proved you that IP version has 32 bits in their IP address Let’s saw
4 octet × 8 bit (each octet have 8 bit) = 32 bit
Now we discuss classes of IPv4. We all know that IPv4 is divided into 5 classes and class have a specific subnet mask and a fixed number of IPs will be considered in a specific class.
Classes of IPv4 is classified below with their specific subnets in it
- class A (0-126) example 10.22.20 subnet mask for A class is 255.0.0.0
class B (127-191) example 18.104.22.168 subnet mask for B class is 255.255.0.0
class C (192-223) example 192.168.0.1 subnet mask for C class is 255.255.255.0
class D (224-239) these IPs are used for multicasting area
class E (240- 255) these IPs are reserved for the research area
There are we only use Class A, B, and C IPs for our personal and commercial work and Class D and E IPs are not used by us these IPs are used by researchers and they research on these IPs and search much more other things about Internet protocol addresses and also search for more series of IP addresses.
Now we discuss reserve IP addresses. We also know that an IP address will also be displayed on your computer even when it is not connected to the internet. It is the same for all computers, laptop, etc. If you connected to a network your computers IP address will be assigned according to your provider’s IP address and when you not connected to the internet then also an IP address shown on your screen is 127.0.0.1 this is same for all computers in this world. These types of IPs will be known as reserved IPs.
Reserved IPs are used for assign loopback IP on your computer. There are two reserved IPs are present in this world. That is given below
- first reserve IP address = 0.0.0.0
second reserved IP is not a specific IP. all IPs which are come in this series will be reserved = 127.0.0.1 ( full series of 127 will be reserved for loopback IPs
Now we learn dotted-decimal notation of an IP address which belongs to IPv4. So let’s start with an example
First of all, we will describe a single octet by dividing it into 8 bits and how we use it for the binary conversion of an Ip address.
Now we take an example from class C IP addresses 192.168.1.2
we all know that IPv4 has 4 octets and each octet has 8 bit in it.
4 × 1 octet = 4 × 8 bit = 32 bit
Now we make a table and convert your IP address into binary digits using binary conversion
|IP address||1st bit||2nd bit||3rd bit||4th bit||5th bit||6th bit||7th bit||8th bit|
Now we saw that binary conversion of an IP address 192.168.1.2 so now we write this IP address into dotted-decimal notation by this method as we use
192 .168 .1 .2
⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓
If you have any queries about this contact me or comment below. If you want to saw more examples of class A and B IPs then read my next article “Some examples of binary conversion of IPv4 in dotted-decimal notation and Subnet mask identification.”